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How important are packaging materials to food safety

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the food professional college sends a big brother to help you answer this question:
first, food containers, packaging materials, food transportation tools and equipment come into contact with food through processing, transportation, packaging and placement, in which harmful substances may migrate to food
I. plastics
plastics are high molecular compounds formed by covalent polymerization of a large number of small molecular monomers. They are plasticized under certain conditions with high molecular resin as the main raw material and an appropriate amount of additives. According to the change of properties after heating, it can be divided into thermoplastic plastics and thermosetting plastics, such as polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polycarbonate (PC), polyethylene terephthalate (PET)
health problems:
1. The barrier property of plastics is poor, which increases the chance of food being polluted by microorganisms; The microbiological indexes of disposable plastic containers, packaging materials and long-term overstocked products without strict disinfection often exceed the standard; Plastic products are not easy to degrade in the natural environment and are easy to cause “white pollution”; Impurities and pollutants attached to plastics are difficult to wash, and the sources of recycled products are complex
2. Some low molecular compounds contained in plastics, including free monomers not involved in polymerization, low polymeric compounds with insufficient polymerization and low molecular decomposition products, may have certain toxic effects on human body
3. Some additives added to plastics can migrate to food, Therefore, it may have toxic effect on human body. The additives used in plastics include plasticizer, stabilizer, smooth opening agent, colorant, antioxidant, anti ultraviolet agent, antistatic agent, filler, etc. For example, some phthalates have the characteristics of estrogen and the biological effect of anti androgen. Dihexyl adipate (DEHA) has carcinogenic effect on animals. AQSIQ has expressly prohibited the distribution of fresh-keeping films containing DEHA or PVC monomer content exceeding the standard, and the use of PVC fresh-keeping films to directly package meat, cooked food and oil food. Lead stearate, barium, chromium and other stabilizers do great harm to human body, so they can not be added to plastic containers and packaging materials as stabilizers. The contact of PVC products with ethanol, ether and other containers will also promote the dissolution of lead
4. There are harmful substances in printing ink and adhesive. For example, heavy metals such as lead, chromium and mercury
5. Chlorinated plastics will produce dioxins when heated and incinerated as garbage
2. Rubber
rubber is divided into natural rubber and synthetic rubber. Its toxicity comes from monomers and additives in rubber base materials, which are highly toxic to liver and kidney and have strong carcinogenic effects
3. Coatings
1 Non high temperature film-forming coatings include polyamide epoxy resin coatings, perchloroethylene coatings, etc. these coatings can only be used after being washed with clean water. Its health problems mainly involve the quality of epoxy resin (containing incomplete polymerized monomers), the ratio with curing agent, the degree of curing and the migration of additives to food. Vinyl peroxide resin contains vinyl chloride monomer, and vinyl chloride may still remain after film formation
2. High temperature curing film-forming coatings include epoxy phenolic coatings, water-based modified epoxy coatings, silicone anti adhesion coatings and organic fluorine coatings. The problem is that there may be unpolymerized monomers, low molecular polymers, free phenols, formaldehyde, chromium salts and fluorides
IV. hygiene of composite packaging materials
processed foods requiring high barrier protection, vacuum packaging, inflatable packaging, etc, Generally, composite packaging materials are used. It is required to add more than one layer of high barrier materials in multi-layer composite materials. Including aluminum foil, nylon, polyester, etc. the commonly used composite food packaging bags are mainly based on flexible packaging materials such as paper, cellophane, plastic film and metal foil, which are obtained through various composite processing methods. Such as polyester aluminum foil polypropylene. However, some of the adhesives contain intermediate toluene diacyandiamide, which can be hydrolyzed under acidic and high temperature conditions to produce carcinogen toluene diamine. Secondly, due to the weak adhesion between the layers, peeling occurs, cracks and pores appear, which may pollute the food; Color ink is printed on the food contact surface of packaging materials, causing food pollution; When compounding, the solvent in the ink and adhesive is not fully dried, i.e. bonding, and the residual solvent migrates to food
v. hygiene of other packaging materials
1. The main sanitary problem of ceramics and enamel is glaze color. The chemical composition of glaze color is metal oxide. Harmful metals such as lead and cadmium, especially when exposed to acid food and wine such as vinegar and fruit juice for a long time, are easy to cause a large number of harmful metals to dissolve out
2. The main sanitary problem of metal products is the integration of harmful metals into food. Containers for storing food and food processing machinery shall be made of Austrian stainless steel; All kinds of metal tableware should be made of martensitic stainless steel, both of which should control the content of lead, chromium, nickel and arsenic
3. Aluminum materials used in the manufacture of food containers can be divided into refined aluminum and recycled aluminum. The source of recycled aluminum is complex and the content of impurities is high. It can not be used to manufacture food containers. It can only be used to manufacture cooking utensils such as vegetable shovels and rice spoons. Pay attention to the source of recycled aluminum and strictly control the lead, zinc, arsenic and cadmium in it. In addition, aluminum is a factor that can not be ignored in Alzheimer’s disease. The long-term use of aluminum products to contain salt, alkaline and acidic food is easy to corrode and destroy the alumina protective film on the surface of the container, so that some aluminum enters the food. In addition, tinned aluminum cans are also known as tinplate cans. The main problem is the dissolution of tin and lead The dissolution of lead and arsenic in glass products is the main sanitary problem of glass products. Some excipients are very toxic, such as red lead powder and arsenic trioxide, especially medium and high-grade glassware, such as high foot wine glass, and the amount of lead can reach more than 30%. Some glass products are dyed by decals or directly adding raw materials to raw materials, and the metal salts in the pigment will migrate to food
4. Pesticide residues in packaging paper pulp; The ink pigment of recycled paper contains lead, cadmium, polychlorinated biphenyls, etc; Toxicity of processing aids in paper industry, such as carcinogenic fluorescent brighteners, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in paraffin, lead and cadmium in printing inks and pigments, and certain toxicity of toluene, xylene and polychlorinated biphenyls in organic solvents; Packaging food directly with waste newspapers will cause microbial pollution
after sending so much and typing for a long time, please adopt it!

toxic, you know

very important

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