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What is the function of fern moss?

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fern Moss: fern moss belongs to a large class of plant family. It is a perennial herb. Guizhou has a very rich number of ferns

tender fern moss and moon moss are human delicacies in spring and summer. They have flat taste, clear and refreshing taste and have health care effect (as shown in the figure). Tender fern moss can be made into acid fern moss, dry fern moss and canned fern moss, which is convenient for preservation and circulation

fern moss is also known as pteridophyte, fist dish, cat’s paw and bibcock dish (also called “wolf heads” in some areas). Scientific name: Pteridium AQUILINUM (Linn.) Kuhn var. (Desv.) Underw. Ex Heller, medium Name: fern, alias also known as leading dish, Ruyi dish, etc. It belongs to pteridiaceae. It is mainly distributed in sparse coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forests. The edible part is the undeveloped young leaf buds. Bracken is wild in the forest, mountain and pine forest. It is a green wild vegetable without any pollution. It is not only rich in a variety of vitamins needed by human body, but also has the effects of clearing intestines, strengthening stomach, relaxing muscles and activating collaterals. Before eating, the bracken is scalded in boiling water and then immersed in cold water to remove the peculiar smell. The processed fern tastes fragrant and smooth, and then mixed with seasoning, cool and refreshing. It is a rare high-quality wine and dish. It can also be fried, processed into dried vegetables, stuffed and pickled into cans
botanical characteristics: bracken is a perennial herb of Polypodiaceae. The underground rhizome is dark brown, long and horizontally extended, with a diameter of 0.6-0.8 cm, a length of more than 10 cm and a maximum length of 30 cm. The leaves grow from underground stems and are three pinnate compound leaves, with a total length of more than 100 cm and slightly triangular. The first lobe is opposite, the second lobe is oblong lanceolate, pinnately divided, the small lobe is linear oblong, glabrous or only hairy on the abaxial midvein, and the veinlets are pinnately branched. The leaf margin curls inward. When the petiole is tender, there are fine hairs. After herbalization, the stem is smooth and the hairs disappear. At the beginning of summer, the reproductive organs, i.e. the cotyledon group, are ochre brown in the leaves
ferns are generally up to one meter high, with long and horizontal roots and dark brown fluff. In early spring, the new leaf fist curls, showing a strong three pronged shape. The handle leaves are fresh and tender, covered with white fluff, and this is the collection period. The petiole is 30-100cm long, the leaf blade is triangular, 60-150cm long and 30-60cm wide, with 2-3 pinnate divisions, the lower pinnae are opposite, the brown sporangium group is continuously attached to the edge of the leaf blade, and there is a double sac group cover
every 100g of fresh fern contains 0.43g of protein, 0.39g of fat, 3.6g of sugars, 0.45g of organic acids and a variety of vitamins. It can be used as vegetables, including maltose, biscuits, lotus root powder and drug additives. Regular consumption can treat hypertension, dizziness, uterine bleeding, arthritis and other diseases, and can prevent measles and influenza
[sexual taste] sweet, cold and astringent, non-toxic
【 channel tropism 】 enter the large intestine and bladder
[indications] dysentery and anal prolapse
[description] Pteridophyte has strong rhizomes and is rich in starch, so it is called powdered Pteridophyte or Pteridophyte powder. It can be used as vermicelli and powder skin. Its tender seedlings are curly like fists, so it is also called “fist dish”. Born in a shady and humid place in the mountains and forests, it is a wild vegetable loved by the people in the mountainous areas of southern China. When eating, remove the leaves and aged roots, blanch in boiling water for 1 minute, soak in clean water for 10 minutes, soak away the astringency, cut off the refueling salt and seasoning, and return to the pot to fry cooked food. Because of its astringent taste, it has the function of astringent treatment of anal prolapse

there are many kinds of pteridophytes, which have their own characteristics in different regions. Generally, they can be divided into the following types according to the origin:
(1) Hebei Chengde Pteridophyte Hebei Chengde Pteridophyte is a famous wild vegetable in Hebei Province. Chengde area covers an area of more than 33000 hectares, mainly covering Longhua, Fengning, Pingquan, Kuancheng and other places. With an annual output of 1000 tons, the region is the main production base of bracken in China
(2) Pteridium aquilinum is widely distributed in mountainous areas of Liaoning Province, especially in the eastern mountainous areas. It is mainly exported to Japan and other countries, and the domestic market is also very popular
(3) bracken in Inner Mongolia is distributed throughout Inner Mongolia, but the main production areas are Chifeng City, Xing’an League and other places, with an annual output of about 200 tons. The local picking period is in June
(4) bracken in Heilongjiang is distributed in alpine areas with an altitude of 200 ~ 800 meters, mostly mixed with weeds. The excavation began in mid May and can be harvested from late May to early May
(5) Guizhou pteridophytes are widely distributed in Guizhou with many kinds, and there are about kinds of edible pteridophytes. The local picking period of pteridophytes is from mid March to August
(6) Hunan bracken is also distributed in Yueyang mountain area, such as Miluo, Zhang Guying and other mountains. The local spring is the picking period of bracken. After about June, the bracken will be formed and grow up and can’t be eaten. Local ferns are scattered, and farmers usually pick some for eating and entertaining guests

nutritional analysis

1 Pteridin has a certain inhibitory effect on bacteria. It can be used for fever, intestinal wind heat toxin, eczema, sore and other diseases. It has a good effect of clearing heat, detoxification, sterilization and inflammation
2. Some active ingredients of Pteridium can dilate blood vessels and reduce blood pressure
3. The crude fiber can promote gastrointestinal peristalsis and has the function of lower Qi and defecation
4. Bracken can clear the intestines and expel toxins. It is commonly used in folk to treat diarrhea and dysentery
5. Pteridophyte can be made into powder, powder and long-term food to satisfy hunger, replenish spleen and Qi, strengthen the body and enhance disease resistance

suitable population
it can be eaten by the general population. People with deficiency of spleen and stomach should use it with caution, and ordinary people should not eat more

cooking instruction
1 Bracken can be eaten fresh or dried in the sun. When making, scald it with boiling water and then dry it. When eating, soak your hair in warm water, and then cook all kinds of delicious dishes
2. Fresh products should also be soaked and scalded in boiling water before eating, and then cooled to remove the viscosity and earthy smell on the surface
3. Fried food is suitable for eggs and meat

field management
(1) fertilization and open field cultivation need to be renewed once every 3 ~ 4 years. Therefore, sufficient farm fertilizer and phosphorus fertilizer should be applied before planting. The application amount is 1000 ~ 1500 kg /mu of organic fertilizer and 10 kg /mu of diammonium phosphate. After the second year, chicken, pig and horse dung shall be applied every autumn to cover the head, and the dung shall be turned into the soil layer with the loosening of the soil. This not only increases the soil fertility and loosens the soil, but also plays the role of heat preservation, cold prevention and moisture retention. If the fecal source is insufficient, it can also cover the fallen leaves, which also plays a certain role
(2) during watering and drain
age planting, the planting ditch shall be filled with water to ensure the survival rate of planting. The accumulated water in the ground in rainy season shall be removed in time to avoid waterlogging
(3) after planting the rhizome covered with bracken, in order to prevent drought and improve the survival rate, the ground should be covered with straw and fallen leaves with a thickness of 2 ~ 3cm. If conditions permit, plastic film mulching can be used. This not only keeps warm, but also prevents weeds from growing
(4) loosen the soil and remove the leather. In order to prevent soil hardening and grass waste, loosen the soil and remove the grass 2 ~ 3 times a year during the growth period, and try to make the field free of weeds
(5) renew the rhizome of Rhizomatous fern. The rhizome will gradually age and die after several years, so it needs to be renewed. Generally, in 3-4-year-old fields, use a wheeled tractor with a plow to cut off some roots of ferns in autumn, so as to ensure continuous harvest without significant reduction in yield. [1]

collection and processing

collection of bracken

bracken in mountainous areas can be collected successively from late March to early May, slightly earlier in low mountains and gentle slopes, and later in medium and high mountains. The appropriate harvest time should be when the excavated surface of Pteridophyte is about 20 cm long and the parietal leaf has not been unfolded like “fist shape”. Early harvest has low yield, and too late harvest affects the quality of stem cellulose
bracken processing

pickling processing
1. First pickling: make the cleaned bracken with salt glue in the ratio of 10:3. First sprinkle a layer of salt with a thickness of about 2 cm on the bottom of the knee making appliance, then put a layer of fern with a thickness of about 5 cm, then fill the Pickler with a layer of salt and a layer of vegetable field in turn, sprinkle 2 cm thick salt on the top layer, press stones on it, and marinate for 8-10 days
2. Second pickling: take the spinach out of the brain maker and put it into another grid maker in sequence from top to bottom. The ratio of fern and salt is 20:1, with one layer of salt and one layer of vegetable field; Fill the Pickler with 35% salt water by mass, press a heavy weight on the surface of fern, and marinate for 14-16 days
salting processing will clean up the salted bracken in barrels. Preparation of saline solution: grind 42% citric acid, 50% sodium metaphosphate and 8% alum respectively, mix them fully, and mix them into a solution with 10 times water for use. Add acid mixing water into saturated brine to make the pH value of the saline solution reach 3.5-4.5, ready for use. First add 5% of the bracken mass salt into the bucket, then add the bracken, sprinkle 10% of the bracken weight salt on the bracken surface, fill the bucket with saline solution, exhaust the air in the bucket, and seal the saline bucket to obtain the finished product
dry processing
put the cleaned bracken into boiling water and scald for 7-8 minutes. Generally, 0.2% – 0.5% by mass citric acid and 0.2% by mass sodium pyrosulfite are added to the scalding solution. If conditions permit, clean sulfur shall be used, which shall be fumigated before scalding. The sulfur consumption per 100 kg of bracken is 0.2-0.4 kg, and the ratio of bracken to scalding solution is 1:1.5-2; After blanching, immediately cool the bracken to normal temperature with flowing water, and then air or dry it. In order to prevent the uneven water inside and outside the bracken, especially to prevent the broken and broken surface of the bracken caused by over drying, the over wet caking and debris should be removed and stacked for 1-3 days to achieve water balance. At the same time, soften the dried fern for pressing or packaging
the finished fern is stored under the condition of low temperature and low humidity. The storage temperature should be 0-2 ℃, not more than 10 ℃, and the relative humidity should be less than 15%

the production method of wild bracken
in the past, pickled bracken was simple to process, difficult to store and long-distance transportation, and affected the market. In recent years, a new technology of packaging with aluminum-plastic composite bag has come out. While maintaining the basic characteristics of bracken, such as green color, crispness, fragrance and refreshing, it has the advantages of exquisite appearance, long storage period, convenient carrying, sanitation and high added value
1. Salting: prepare the ingredients according to 7 portions of vegetables and 3 portions of salt. First sprinkle a layer of bottom salt in the pickling tank, then put a layer of vegetables and a layer of salt evenly, and finally seal the top with the salt layer and press it out of the tank after 10-15 days
II. Desalination: put the pickled bracken into the water tank, wash it for 6-7 hours, then change the water and wash it again for 3-4 hours. In order to shorten the desalination time, proper mixing can be made, but crushing should be avoided
III. regreening: take reagent grade copper sulfate for regreening treatment. The pH value of sulfuric acid solution should be controlled at about 65 ℃ – 6 ℃. The greened bracken is basically close to the color of fresh bracken, and then wash it for 2-3 times, so that the residue of copper adhered to bracken does not exceed 10ppm
IV. embrittlement: soak the green fern in 0.6% calcium chloride solution, wet it and put it into a sealed container for vacuum embrittlement treatment. The vacuum degree of vacuum pumping is maintained at 0.08mp2 and the temperature is 50 ℃ – 55 ℃

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